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Ecological Evidence


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Balvanera, P., Pfisterer, A.B., Buchmann, N., He, J.S., Nakashizuka, T., Raffaelli, D. and Schmid, B., 2006. Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology letters, 9(10), pp.1146-1156.


Foresight, U.K., 2011. The future of food and farming. Final Project Report, London, The Government Office for Science.

Garbach, K., Milder, J.C., DeClerck, F.A., Montenegro de Wit, M., Driscoll, L. and Gemmill-Herren, B., 2017. Examining multi-functionality for crop yield and ecosystem services in five systems of agroecological intensification. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 15: 11-28.

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Kleijn, D., Bommarco, R., Fijen, T.P., Garibaldi, L.A., Potts, S.G. and van der Putten, W.H., 2018. Ecological intensification: bridging the gap between science and practice. Trends in ecology & evolution.

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Pywell, R.F., Heard, M.S., Woodcock, B.A., Hinsley, S., Ridding, L., Nowakowski, M. and Bullock, J.M., 2015. Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282, p.20151740.

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Struik, P.C. and Kuyper, T.W., 2017. Sustainable intensification in agriculture: the richer shade of green. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 37(5), p.39.


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Thrupp, L.A., 2000. Linking agricultural biodiversity and food security: the valuable role of agrobiodiversity for sustainable agriculture. International affairs, 76(2), pp.265-281.


Tittonell, P., 2014. Ecological intensification of agriculture—sustainable by nature. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 8, pp.53-61.


Wezel, A., Soboksa, G., McClelland, S., Delespesse, F. and Boissau, A., 2015. The blurred boundaries of ecological, sustainable, and agroecological intensification: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35(4), pp.1283-1295.


Zhang W., Ricketts T.H., Kremen C., Carney K., Swinton S.M., 2007. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 64, 253-260.


Bakker, J.P. and Berendse, F., 1999. Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14: 63-68.

Benton, T.G., Vickery, J.A. and Wilson, J.D., 2003. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key?. Trends in ecology & evolution, 18(4), pp.182-188.

Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P.R. and Dirzo, R., 2017. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(30), pp.E6089-E6096.


*Colhoun, K. and Cummins, S., 2013. Birds of conservation concern in Ireland. Irish Birds, 9, pp.523-544.


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Kleijn, D., Kohler, F., Báldi, A., Batáry, P., Concepción, E.D., Clough, Y., Díaz, M., Gabriel, D., Holzschuh, A., Knop, E. and Kovács, A., 2008. On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe. Proceedings of the royal society B: biological sciences, 276(1658), pp.903-909.

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Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Hopkins, A., Walker, K.J., Sparks, T.H., Burke, M.J. and Peel, S., 2002. Restoration of species‐rich grassland on arable land: assessing the limiting processes using a multi‐site experiment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39: 294-309.


Reid, A.J., Carlson, A.K., Creed, I.F., Eliason, E.J., Gell, P.A., Johnson, P.T., Kidd, K.A., MacCormack, T.J., Olden, J.D., Ormerod, S.J. and Smol, J.P., 2019. Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity. Biological Reviews, 94(3), pp.849-873.

Rockström, J.; Steffen, W.; Noone, K.; Persson, Å.; Chapin, F. S.; Lambin, E. F.; Lenton, T. M.; Scheffer, M.; et al. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461 (7263): 472–475

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Stoate, C., Boatman, N.D., Borralho, R.J., Carvalho, C.R., De Snoo, G.R. and Eden, P., 2001. Ecological impacts of arable intensification in Europe. Journal of environmental management, 63(4), pp.337-365.


Veresoglou, S.D., Halley, J.M. and Rillig, M.C., 2015. Extinction risk of soil biota. Nature communications, 6, p.8862.


Wake, D.B. and Vredenburg, V.T., 2008. Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(Supplement 1), pp.11466-11473.



Andrén, H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71: 355-366.

Bianchi, F.J., Booij, C.J.H. and Tscharntke, T., 2006. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 273(1595), pp.1715-1727.

J Carlier, J Moran, T Aughney, N Roche. 2019. Effects of greenway development on functional connectivity for bats. Global Ecology and Conservation, in press. 


J Carlier, J Moran. 2019. Landscape typology and ecological connectivity assessment to inform Greenway design. Science of the Total Environment 651: 3241-3252. 


Chaplin‐Kramer, R., O’Rourke, M.E., Blitzer, E.J. and Kremen, C., 2011. A meta‐analysis of crop pest and natural enemy response to landscape complexity. Ecology letters, 14(9), pp.922-932.


Donald, P.F. and Evans, A.D., 2006. Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri‐environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43(2), pp.209-218.


Duelli, P. and Obrist, M.K., 2003. Regional biodiversity in an agricultural landscape: the contribution of seminatural habitat islands. Basic and applied ecology, 4(2), pp.129-138.

Fischer, J. & Lindenmayer, D.B. 2007. Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 265–280.

García-Feced, C., Weissteiner, C.J., Baraldi, A., Paracchini, M.L., Maes, J., Zulian, G., Kempen, M., Elbersen, B. and Pérez-Soba, M., 2015. Semi-natural vegetation in agricultural land: European map and links to ecosystem service supply. Agronomy for sustainable development, 35(1), pp.273-283.


Garibaldi, L.A., Steffan‐Dewenter, I., Kremen, C., Morales, J.M., Bommarco, R., Cunningham, S.A., Carvalheiro, L.G., Chacoff, N.P., Dudenhöffer, J.H., Greenleaf, S.S. and Holzschuh, A., 2011. Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits. Ecology letters, 14(10), pp.1062-1072.

Green Infrastructure Studies. DG Environment, European Commission. 


Hendrickx, F., MAELFAIT, J.P., Van Wingerden, W., Schweiger, O., Speelmans, M., Aviron, S., Augenstein, I., Billeter, R., Bailey, D., Bukacek, R. and Burel, F., 2007. How landscape structure, land‐use intensity and habitat diversity affect components of total arthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(2), pp.340-351.


Hodgson, J.A., Moilanen, A., Wintle, B.A. and Thomas, C.D., 2011. Habitat area, quality and connectivity: striking the balance for efficient conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(1), pp.148-152.


Kennedy, C.M., Lonsdorf, E., Neel, M.C., Williams, N.M., Ricketts, T.H., Winfree, R., Bommarco, R., Brittain, C., Burley, A.L., Cariveau, D. and Carvalheiro, L.G., 2013. A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology letters, 16(5), pp.584-599.


Larkin, J., Sheridan, H., Finn, J.A. and Denniston, H., 2019. Semi-natural habitats and Ecological Focus Areas on cereal, beef and dairy farms in Ireland. Land Use Policy, 88, p.104096.


Morriën, E., Hannula, S.E., Snoek, L.B., Helmsing, N.R., Zweers, H., De Hollander, M., Soto, R.L., Bouffaud, M.L., Buée, M., Dimmers, W. and Duyts, H., 2017. Soil networks become more connected and take up more carbon as nature restoration progresses. Nature Communications, 8, p.14349.

Ó hUallacháin et al. 2016. A comparison of grassland vegetation from three agri-environment conservation measures. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 2016: 55, 176-191.

RBAPS. 2019. Results Based Agri-environmental Payment Schemes. 


RBAPS. 2018. Developing Results Based Agri-environmental Payment Schemes in Ireland and Spain. Project website.

Rotchés-Ribalta et al. (2019) Assessment of semi-natural habitats and landscape features on Irish farmland – New insights to inform EU Common Agricultural Policy implementation. Ambio (in review)

Rybicki, J., Hanski, I. 2013. Species-area relationships and extinctions caused by habitat loss and fragmentation. Ecology Letters 16: 27-38.

Shackelford, G., Steward, P.R., Benton, T.G., Kunin, W.E., Potts, S.G., Biesmeijer, J.C. and Sait, S.M., 2013. Comparison of pollinators and natural enemies: a meta‐analysis of landscape and local effects on abundance and richness in crops. Biological Reviews, 88(4), pp.1002-1021.


Tscharntke, T., Tylianakis, J.M., Rand, T.A., Didham, R.K., Fahrig, L., Batary, P., Bengtsson, J., Clough, Y., Crist, T.O., Dormann, C.F. and Ewers, R.M., 2012. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes‐eight hypotheses. Biological reviews, 87(3), pp.661-685.




AranLIFE (2018). Field condition assessment and associated management advice to improve or maintain the conservation status of the field. Final Report for the  AranLIFE project. 

Batary, P., Baldi, A., Kleijn, D. and Tscharntke, T., 2010. Landscape-moderated biodiversity effects of agri-environmental management: a meta-analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1713), pp.1894-1902.


Batáry, P., Dicks, L.V., Kleijn, D. and Sutherland, W.J., 2015. The role of agri‐environment schemes in conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology, 29(4), pp.1006-1016.

P Boyle, M Hayes, M Gormally, C Sullivan, J Moran. 2015. Development of a nature value index for pastoral farmland—A rapid farm-level assessment. Ecological Indicators, 56: 31-40

The Burren Programme.


*Cullen, P., Dupraz, P., Moran, J., Murphy, P., O'Flaherty, R., O'Donoghue, C., O'Shea, R. and Ryan, M., 2018. Agri‐Environment Scheme Design: Past Lessons and Future Suggestions. EuroChoices, 17(3), pp.26-30.


Donald, P.F. and Evans, A.D., 2006. Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri‐environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43: 209-218.


Ekroos, J., Olsson, O., Rundlöf, M., Wätzold, F. and Smith, H.G., 2014. Optimizing agri-environment schemes for biodiversity, ecosystem services or both? Biological Conservation, 172: 65-71.


Fahrig, L., 2001. How much habitat is enough?. Biological Conservation, 100: 65-74.

Galler, C., von Haaren, C. and Albert, C., 2015. Optimizing environmental measures for landscape multifunctionality: Effectiveness, efficiency and recommendations for agri-environmental programs. Journal of environmental management, 151, pp.243-257.

Herzon, I., Birge, T., Allen, B., Povellato, A., Vanni, F., Hart, K., Radley, G., Tucker, G., Keenleyside, C., Oppermann, R. and Underwood, E., 2018. Time to look for evidence: results-based approach to biodiversity conservation on farmland in Europe. Land use policy, 71, pp.347-354.

Kleijn, D. and Sutherland, W.J., 2003. How effective are European agri‐environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity?. Journal of applied ecology, 40(6), pp.947-969.

Matin, S., Sullivan, C.A., Finn, J.A., O'hUallacháin, D., Green, S., Meredith, D. and Moran, J., 2019. Distribution and extent of High Nature Value farmland in the Republic of Ireland (tetrad scale). Ecological Indicators (in press)

National Parks and Wildlife Farm Plan Scheme. NPWS website. 

RBAPS. 2018. Developing Results Based Agri-environmental Payment Schemes in Ireland and Spain. Project website.

Wood, T.J., Holland, J.M., Hughes, W.O. and Goulson, D., 2015. Targeted agri‐environment schemes significantly improve the population size of common farmland bumblebee species. Molecular Ecology, 24(8), pp.1668-1680.


Brown, C., Kovacs, E.K., Zinngrebe, Y., Albizua, A., Galanaki, A., Grammatikopoulou, I., Herzon, I., Marquardt, D., McCracken, D., Olsson, J., Villamayor-Tomas, S. (2019). Understanding farmer uptake of measures that support biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Report prepared by an EKLIPSE Expert Working Group. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom

Burton, R.J. and Paragahawewa, U.H., 2011. Creating culturally sustainable agri-environmental schemes. Journal of Rural Studies, 27(1), pp.95-104.


Burton, R.J. and Schwarz, G., 2013. Result-oriented agri-environmental schemes in Europe and their potential for promoting behavioural change. Land Use Policy, 30(1), pp.628-641.


De Snoo, G.R., Herzon, I., Staats, H., Burton, R.J., Schindler, S., van Dijk, J., Lokhorst, A.M., Bullock, J.M., Lobley, M., Wrbka, T. and Schwarz, G., 2013. Toward effective nature conservation on farmland: making farmers matter. Conservation Letters, 6(1), pp.66-72.


Emery, S.B. and Franks, J.R., 2012. The potential for collaborative agri-environment schemes in England: Can a well-designed collaborative approach address farmers’ concerns with current schemes?. Journal of Rural Studies, 28(3), pp.218-231.


Finn, J.A. and Ó hUallacháin, D., 2012. A review of evidence on the environmental impact of Ireland's Rural Environment Protection Scheme (REPS). Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (pp. 11-34). 

LEAP, 2016. Principles for the assessment of livestock impacts on biodiversity. Version 1. Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance Partnership. FAO, Rome, Italy. 

Pretty, J. and Ward, H., 2001. Social Capital and the Environment. World Development, 29(2), pp.209-227.


Pretty, J.N., 2003. Social capital and connectedness: Issues and implications for agriculture, rural development and natural resource management in ACP countries: a review paper for CTA.


Pretty, J. and Smith, D., 2004. Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conservation biology, 18(3), pp.631-638.

Primdahl, J., Vesterager, J.P., Finn, J.A., Vlahos, G. Kristensen, L. and Vejre, H. 2010. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 1245-1254.


Soliva, R., Rønningen, K., Bella, I., Bezak, P., Cooper, T., Flø, B.E., Marty, P. and Potter, C., 2008. Envisioning upland futures: Stakeholder responses to scenarios for Europe's mountain landscapes. Journal of Rural Studies, 24(1), pp.56-71.


Teillard, F., de Souza, D.M., Thoma, G., Gerber, P.J. and Finn, J.A. 2016. What does Life‐Cycle Assessment of agricultural products need for more meaningful inclusion of biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology, 53: 1422-1429.


Espinosa‐Goded, M., Barreiro‐Hurlé, J. and Ruto, E., 2010. What do farmers want from agri‐environmental scheme design? A choice experiment approach. Journal of Agricultural economics, 61(2), pp.259-273.

*Finn, J.A., Kurz, I. and Bourke, D., 2008. Multiple factors control the environmental effectiveness of agri-environment schemes: implications for design and evaluation.


Franks, J.R., 2019. An assessment of the landscape-scale dimensions of land based environmental management schemes offered to farmers in England. Land Use Policy, 83, pp.147-159.


Gonthier, D.J., Ennis, K.K., Farinas, S., Hsieh, H.Y., Iverson, A.L., Batáry, P., Rudolphi, J., Tscharntke, T., Cardinale, B.J. and Perfecto, I., 2014. Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1791), p.20141358.

Holland, J.M., Storkey, J., Lutman, P.J.W., Birkett, T.C., Simper, J. and Aebischer, N.J., 2014. Utilisation of agri-environment scheme habitats to enhance invertebrate ecosystem service providers. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 183, pp.103-109.


Kleijn, D. and Sutherland, W.J., 2003. How effective are European agri‐environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity?. Journal of applied ecology, 40(6), pp.947-969.

McCracken, M.E., Woodcock, B.A., Lobley, M., Pywell, R.F., Saratsi, E., Swetnam, R.D., Mortimer, S.R., Harris, S.J., Winter, M., Hinsley, S. and Bullock, J.M., 2015. Social and ecological drivers of success in agri‐environment schemes: the roles of farmers and environmental context. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52(3), pp.696-705.

McKenzie, A.J., Emery, S.B., Franks, J.R. and Whittingham, M.J., 2013. Landscape‐scale conservation: collaborative agri‐environment schemes could benefit both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but will farmers be willing to participate? Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(5), pp.1274-1280.

Merckx, T., Feber, R.E., Dulieu, R.L., Townsend, M.C., Parsons, M.S., Bourn, N.A., Riordan, P. and Macdonald, D.W., 2009. Effect of field margins on moths depends on species mobility: field-based evidence for landscape-scale conservation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 129:302-309.

Mettepenningen, E., Vandermeulen, V., Delaet, K., Van Huylenbroeck, G. and Wailes, E.J., 2013. Investigating the influence of the institutional organisation of agri-environmental schemes on scheme adoption. Land use policy, 33, pp.20-30.

o’Rourke, E., 2006. Biodiversity and land use change on the Causse Méjan, France. In Human Exploitation and Biodiversity Conservation (pp. 271-286). Springer, Dordrecht.

Prager, K., 2015. Agri-environmental collaboratives for landscape management in Europe. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 12, pp.59-66.

Ruto, E. and Garrod, G., 2009. Investigating farmers' preferences for the design of agri-environment schemes: a choice experiment approach. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 52(5), pp.631-647.

Science for Environment Policy, 2017. Agri-environmental schemes: how to enhance the agriculture-environment relationship.Thematic Issue 57. Issue produced for the European Commission DG Environment by the Science Communication Unit, UWE, Bristol.

Whittingham, M.J., 2011. The future of agri‐environment schemes: biodiversity gains and ecosystem service delivery?. Journal of applied ecology, 48(3), pp.509-513.



Batáry, P., Holzschuh, A., Orci, K. M., Samu, F., & Tscharntke, T. (2012). Responses of plant, insect and spider biodiversity to local and landscape scale management intensity in cereal crops and grasslands. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 146(1), 130-136


Batáry, P., Matthiesen, T., & Tscharntke, T. (2010). Landscape-moderated importance of hedges in conserving farmland bird diversity of organic vs. conventional croplands and grasslands. Biological Conservation, 143(9), 2020-2027.


Carvalheiro, L. G., Veldtman, R., Shenkute, A. G., Tesfay, G. B., Pirk, C. W. W., Donaldson, J. S., & Nicolson, S. W. (2011). Natural and within‐farmland biodiversity enhances crop productivity. Ecology letters, 14(3), 251-259.


Clough, Y., Kruess, A., Kleijn, D., & Tscharntke, T. (2005). Spider diversity in cereal fields: comparing factors at local, landscape and regional scales. Journal of Biogeography, 32(11), 2007-2014.


D’Hose, T., Molendijk, L., Van Vooren, L., van den Berg, W., Hoek, H., Runia, W., ... & Grignani, C. (2018). Responses of soil biota to non-inversion tillage and organic amendments: An analysis on European multiyear field experiments. Pedobiologia, 66, 18-28.


Di Falco, S., & Chavas, J. P. (2008). Rainfall shocks, resilience, and the effects of crop biodiversity on agroecosystem productivity. Land Economics, 84(1), 83-96.


Haddaway, N. R., Hedlund, K., Jackson, L. E., Kätterer, T., Lugato, E., Thomsen, I. K., ... & Isberg, P. E. (2016). How does tillage intensity affect soil organic carbon? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence, 5(1), 1.


Haddaway, N. R., Hedlund, K., Jackson, L. E., Kätterer, T., Lugato, E., Thomsen, I. K., ... & Söderström, B. (2015). What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon in boreo-temperate systems?. Environmental Evidence, 4(1), 23.


Holzschuh, A., Steffan‐Dewenter, I., Kleijn, D., & Tscharntke, T. (2007). Diversity of flower‐visiting bees in cereal fields: effects of farming system, landscape composition and regional context. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(1), 41-49.


Kovács‐Hostyánszki, A., Batáry, P., & Báldi, A. (2011). Local and landscape effects on bee communities of Hungarian winter cereal fields. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 13(1), 59-66.


Mcmahon, B. J., Carnus, T., & Whelan, J. (2013). A comparison of winter bird communities in agricultural grassland and cereal habitats in Ireland: implications for Common Agricultural Policy reform. Bird Study, 60(2), 176-184..


Norris, C. E., & Congreves, K. A. (2018). Alternative management practices improve soil health indices in intensive vegetable cropping systems: a review. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 6, 50.


Schmidt, M. H., & Tscharntke, T. (2005). Landscape context of sheetweb spider (Araneae: Linyphiidae) abundance in cereal fields. Journal of Biogeography, 32(3), 467-473.


Skaalsveen, K., Ingram, J., & Clarke, L. E. (2019). The effect of no-till farming on the soil functions of water purification and retention in north-western Europe: A literature review. Soil and Tillage Research, 189, 98-109.

Tuck, S. L., Winqvist, C., Mota, F., Ahnström, J., Turnbull, L. A., & Bengtsson, J. (2014). Land‐use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta‐analysis. Journal of applied ecology, 51(3), 746-755.






Adenuga, A. H., Davis, J., Hutchinson, G., Donnellan, T., & Patton, M., 2018. Estimation and determinants of phosphorus balance and use efficiency of dairy farms in Northern Ireland: A within and between farm random effects analysis. Agricultural Systems, 164, 11-19.

Benthien, O., Braun, M., Riemann, J. C., & Stolter, C., 2018. Long-term effect of sheep and goat grazing on plant diversity in a semi-natural dry grassland habitat. Heliyon, 4(3), e00556.

Carvell, C. (2002). Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) under different grassland management regimes. Biological conservation, 103(1), 33-49.

De Deyn, G. B., Shiel, R. S., Ostle, N. J., McNamara, N. P., Oakley, S., Young, I., ... & Bardgett, R. D. 2011. Additional carbon sequestration benefits of grassland diversity restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(3), 600-608.

De Deyn, G. B., Cornelissen, J. H., & Bardgett, R. D., 2008. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes. Ecology letters, 11(5), 516-531.

De Vries, F. T., Liiri, M. E., Bjørnlund, L., Bowker, M. A., Christensen, S., Setälä, H. M., & Bardgett, R. D., 2012. Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought. Nature climate change, 2(4), 276.

De Vries, F. T., & Wallenstein, M. D. 2017. Below‐ground connections underlying above‐ground food production: a framework for optimising ecological connections in the rhizosphere. Journal of Ecology, 105(4), 913-920.

Habel, J. C., Dengler, J., Janišová, M., Török, P., Wellstein, C., & Wiezik, M. 2013. European grassland ecosystems: threatened hotspots of biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22(10), 2131-2138.

Haddad, N. M., Haarstad, J., & Tilman, D. 2000. The effects of long-term nitrogen loading on grassland insect communities. Oecologia, 124(1), 73-84.

Joyce, C. B. 2014. Ecological consequences and restoration potential of abandoned wet grasslands. Ecological Engineering, 66, 91-102.

Kleijn, D., Kohler, F., Báldi, A., Batáry, P., Concepción, E. D., Clough, Y., ... & Kovács, A. 2008. On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe. Proceedings of the royal society B: biological sciences, 276(1658), 903-909.

Klimek, S., Hofmann, M., & Isselstein, J. 2007. Plant species richness and composition in managed grasslands: the relative importance of field management and environmental factors. Biological conservation, 134(4), 559-570.

Kruess, A., & Tscharntke, T. 2002. Grazing intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap‐nesting bees and wasps. Conservation Biology, 16(6), 1570-1580.

Martin, J. R., Perrin, P. M., Delaney, A. M., O’Neill, F. H., & McNutt, K. E. 2008. Irish semi-natural grasslands survey. annual report No. 1: Counties Cork and Waterford.

McMahon, B. J., Anderson, A., Carnus, T., Helden, A. J., Kelly-Quinn, M., Maki, A., ... & Purvis, G. 2012. Different bioindicators measured at different spatial scales vary in their response to agricultural intensity. Ecological indicators, 18, 676-683.

Morris, M. G. 2000. The effects of structure and its dynamics on the ecology and conservation of arthropods in British grasslands. Biological conservation, 95(2), 129-142.

O'Neill, F. H., Martin, J. R., Devaney, F. M., & Perrin, P. M. 2013. The Irish semi-natural grasslands survey 2007-2012. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 78. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Ireland.

Öckinger, E., & Smith, H. G. 2007. Semi‐natural grasslands as population sources for pollinating insects in agricultural landscapes. Journal of applied ecology, 44(1), 50-59.

Ó hUallacháin, D., Finn, J. A., Keogh, B., Fritch, R., & Sheridan, H. 2016. A comparison of grassland vegetation from three agri-environment conservation measures. Irish journal of agricultural and food research, 55(2), 176-191.

Parr, S., O'Donovan, G., Ward, S., & Finn, J. A. (2009, April). Vegetation analysis of upland Burren grasslands of conservation interest. In Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (pp. 11-33). Royal Irish Academy.

Plantureux, S., Peeters, A., & McCracken, D. 2005. Biodiversity in intensive grasslands: Effect of management, improvement and challenges. Agronomy research, 3(2), 153-164.

Sjödin, N. E., Bengtsson, J., & Ekbom, B. 2008. The influence of grazing intensity and landscape composition on the diversity and abundance of flower‐visiting insects. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(3), 763-772.

Sullivan, C. A., Skeffington, M. S., Gormally, M. J., & Finn, J. A. 2010. The ecological status of grasslands on lowland farmlands in western Ireland and implications for grassland classification and nature value assessment. Biological Conservation, 143(6), 1529-1539.

Unsicker, S. B., Baer, N., Kahmen, A., Wagner, M., Buchmann, N., & Weisser, W. W. 2006. Invertebrate herbivory along a gradient of plant species diversity in extensively managed grasslands. Oecologia, 150(2), 233.

Vickery, J. A., Tallowin, J. R., Feber, R. E., Asteraki, E. J., Atkinson, P. W., Fuller, R. J., & Brown, V. K. 2001. The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. Journal of applied ecology, 38(3), 647-664.

Walker, K. J., Stevens, P. A., Stevens, D. P., Mountford, J. O., Manchester, S. J., & Pywell, R. F. 2004. The restoration and re-creation of species-rich lowland grassland on land formerly managed for intensive agriculture in the UK. Biological conservation, 119(1), 1-18.





Bakker, J. P., & Berendse, F. (1999). Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Trends in ecology & evolution, 14(2), 63-68.


Byrne, K. A., & Farrell, E. P. (2005). The effect of afforestation on soil carbon dioxide emissions in blanket peatland in Ireland. Forestry, 78(3), 217-227.


Chapman, S., Buttler, A., Francez, A. J., Laggoun-Défarge, F., Vasander, H., Schloter, M., ... & Gilbert, D. (2003). Exploitation of northern peatlands and biodiversity maintenance: a conflict between economy and ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(10), 525-532.


De Graaf, M. C., Bobbink, R., Smits, N. A., Van Diggelen, R., & Roelofs, J. G. (2009). Biodiversity, vegetation gradients and key biogeochemical processes in the heathland landscape. Biological conservation, 142(10), 2191-2201.


Fagúndez, J. (2012). Heathlands confronting global change: drivers of biodiversity loss from past to future scenarios. Annals of Botany, 111(2), 151-172.


García, R. R., Fraser, M. D., Celaya, R., Ferreira, L. M. M., García, U., & Osoro, K. (2013). Grazing land management and biodiversity in the Atlantic European heathlands: a review. Agroforestry Systems, 87(1), 19-43.


Holden, J., & Burt, T. P. (2003). Hydrological studies on blanket peat: The significance of the acrotelm‐catotelm model. Journal of Ecology, 91(1), 86-102.


Littlewood, N., Anderson, P., Artz, R., Bragg, O., Lunt, P., & Marrs, R. (2010). Peatland biodiversity. IUCN UK Peatland Programme, Edinburgh.


Maes, D., & Van Dyck, H. (2005). Habitat quality and biodiversity indicator performances of a threatened butterfly versus a multispecies group for wet heathlands in Belgium. Biological conservation, 123(2), 177-187.


McFerran, D. M., Montgomery, W. I., & McAdam, J. H. (1994, April). Effects of grazing intensity on heathland vegetation and ground beetle assemblages of the uplands of county Antrim, North-East Ireland. In Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (pp. 41-52). Royal Irish Academy.


Minayeva, T. Y., Bragg, O. M., & Sirin, A. A. (2017). Towards ecosystem-based restoration of peatland biodiversity. Mires and Peat, 19(1), 1-36.


Minayeva, T. Y., & Sirin, A. A. (2012). Peatland biodiversity and climate change. Biology Bulletin Reviews, 2(2), 164-175.

Renou-Wilson, F., Bolger, T., Bullock, C., Convery, F., Curry, J., Ward, S., ... & Müller, C. (2011). BOGLAND: Sustainable management of Peatlands in Ireland. STRIVE Report Series, (75), 181.




Smith, G., Gittings, G., Wilson, M., French, L., Oxbrough, A., O'Donoghue, S., ... & O'Halloran, J. (2005). Assessment of biodiversity at different stages of the forest cycle.


Iremonger, S., Gittings, T., Smith, G. F., Wilson, M., Oxbrough, A., Coote, L., ... & O'Donnell, V. (2006). Investigation of experimental methods to enhance biodiversity in plantation forests.


Knaggs, G., & O’Driscoll, E. (2013). Woodflow and forest-based biomass energy use on the island of Ireland 2012. http://www. coford. ie/media/coford/content/publications/projectreports/cofordconnects/Woodflow% 20and% 20forestbased% 20biomass% 20energy% 20use% 20on% 20the% 20island% 20of% 20Ireland, 20(282012), 29.


Bennewicz, J. (2011). Aphidivorous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) at field boundaries and woodland edges in an agricultural landscape. Polish Journal of Entomology/Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 80(1), 129-149.


Brosi, B. J., Daily, G. C., Shih, T. M., Oviedo, F., & Durán, G. (2008). The effects of forest fragmentation on bee communities in tropical countryside. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(3), 773-783.


Bullock, C. H., O’Callaghan, C., Dhubháin, Á. N., Iwata, Y., O’Donoghue, C., Ryan, M., ... & Kelly-Quinn, M. (2016). A review of the range and value of ecosystem services from Irish forests. Irish Forestry.


Bullock, C., Hawe, J., & Little, D. (2014, December). Realising the ecosystem-service value of native woodland in Ireland. In New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science (Vol. 44, No. S1, p. S4). Springer International Publishing


Etingoff, K. (2015). Realizing the Ecosystem-Service Value of Native Woodland in Ireland. In Urban Ecology (pp. 101-124). Apple Academic Press..


Fuller, L., Fuentes‐Montemayor, E., Watts, K., Macgregor, N. A., Bitenc, K., & Park, K. J. (2018). Local‐scale attributes determine the suitability of woodland creation sites for Diptera. Journal of applied ecology, 55(3), 1173-1184.


Herrault, P. A., Larrieu, L., Cordier, S., Gimmi, U., Lachat, T., Ouin, A., ... & Sheeren, D. (2016). Combined effects of area, connectivity, history and structural heterogeneity of woodlands on the species richness of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Landscape ecology, 31(4), 877-893.


O’Callaghan, C. J., Irwin, S., Byrne, K. A., & O’Halloran, J. (2017). The role of planted forests in the provision of habitat: an Irish perspective. Biodiversity and conservation, 26(13), 3103-3124.


Ouin, A., Sarthou, J. P., Bouyjou, B., Deconchat, M., Lacombe, J. P., & Monteil, C. (2006). The species‐area relationship in the hoverfly (Diptera, Syrphidae) communities of forest fragments in southern France. Ecography, 29(2), 183-190.


Felton, A., Lindbladh, M., Brunet, J., & Fritz, Ö. (2010). Replacing coniferous monocultures with mixed-species production stands: an assessment of the potential benefits for forest biodiversity in northern Europe. Forest ecology and management, 260(6), 939-947.


Saunders, M. E., & Luck, G. W. (2014). Spatial and temporal variation in pollinator community structure relative to a woodland–almond plantation edge. Agricultural and forest entomology, 16(4), 369-381.


Saunders, M. E., & Luck, G. W. (2018). Interaction effects between local flower richness and distance to natural woodland on pest and beneficial insects in apple orchards. Agricultural and forest entomology, 20(2), 279-287


Sing, L., Metzger, M. J., Paterson, J. S., & Ray, D. (2017). A review of the effects of forest management intensity on ecosystem services for northern European temperate forests with a focus on the UK. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 91(2), 151-164..


Coote, L., Dietzsch, A. C., Wilson, M. W., Graham, C. T., Fuller, L., Walsh, A. T., ... & O’Halloran, J. (2013). Testing indicators of biodiversity for plantation forests. Ecological Indicators, 32, 107-115.


Upton, V., Dhubháin, Á. N., & Bullock, C. (2019). The valuation of non-market forest benefits in Ireland: A review. Irish Forestry, 109-125.


Burton, V., Moseley, D., Brown, C., Metzger, M. J., & Bellamy, P. (2018). Reviewing the evidence base for the effects of woodland expansion on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the United Kingdom. Forest ecology and management, 430, 366-379.

Principle 5
Principle 6
Principle 4
Principle 3
Principle 2
Principle 1


Grassland Example
Cropland Example
Heathland Example
Forests Example


Specialist Areas:

Farmland Habitats
Bat Ecology
Soil Ecology


Finn, J.A. and Ó hUallacháin, D. 2012. A review of evidence for the environmental effectiveness of Ireland’s Rural Environmental Protection Scheme. Biology and Environment 112B: 1-24


Kelly et al. 2018. Sustainability indicators for improved assessment of the effects of agricultural policy across the EU: Is FADN the answer? Ecological Indicators, 89, 903-911.

Larkin et al. 2019. Semi-natural habitats and Ecological Focus Areas on cereal, beef and dairy farms in Ireland. Land Use Policy, 104096.


Matin et al. 2020. Assessing the distribution and extent of High Nature Value farmland in the Republic of Ireland. Ecological Indicators, in press.

Ó hUallacháin et al. 2016. A comparison of grassland vegetation from three agri-environment conservation measures. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 2016: 55, 176-191.


Rotchés-Ribalta et al. (2019) Assessment of semi-natural habitats and landscape features on Irish farmland – New insights to inform EU Common Agricultural Policy implementation. Ambio (in review)

RBAPS. 2019. Results Based Agri-environmental Payment Schemes.


Sheridan et al. 2011. Pastoral farmland habitat diversity in south-east Ireland. Agriculture,

Ecosystems & Environment, 144: 130-135.


Teillard, F., Maia de Souza, D., Thoma, G., Gerber, P. J. and Finn, J. A. (2016), What does Life-Cycle Assessment of agricultural products need for more meaningful inclusion of

biodiversity?. J Appl Ecol. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12683


Walsh et al. 2015.The distribution of vascular plant species of conservation concern in Ireland, and their coincidence with designated areas. J for Nat Conservation, 24: 56-62

 INTRODUCTION TO BAT ECOLOGY (Dr Kate McAney, Vincent Wildlife Trust) 


Dool et al. 2016. The effects of humanmediated habitat fragmentation on a sedentary
woodlandassociated species (Rhinolophus hipposideros) at its range margin.
Acta Chiropterologica 18(2)

Lundy et al. 2011. Landscape conservation for Irish bats & speciesspecific roosting characteristics. Bat Conservation Ireland. 

McAney, K. 2014. An overview of Rhinolophus hipposideros in Ireland (1994–2014). Vespertilio 17

McAney, K. 2015. West of Ireland farmers hold the key to the conservation of the lesser horseshoe bat. Conference, 2015


Roche et al. 2015. Lesser horseshoe bat: population trends and status of its roosting resource. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 85. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Ireland.

NPWS 2019. The Status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. Volume 3: Species Assessments.


Adenuga, A. et al. 2018. Estimation and determinants of phosphorus balance and use efficiency of dairy farms in Northern Ireland: A within and between farm random effects analysis. Agricultural Systems, 164, 1119.

Bardgett, RD., van der Putten, WH. 2014 Belowground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nature 515, 505511.

Bellprat, O. et al. 2019. Towards reliable extreme weather and climate event attribution. Nature communications 10, 1732.

Curry et al. 2002. Intensive cultivation can drastically reduce earthworm populations in arable land. European Journal of Soil Biology, 38(2), 127130.

de Vries, F. et al. 2012. Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought. Nature climate change, 2(4), 276


de Vries, FT. & Wallenstein, MD. 2017. Below‐ground connections underlying above‐ground food production: a framework for optimising ecological connections in the rhizosphere. Journal of Ecology, 105(4), 913920.


Donnellan, T. et al. 2018. Future Scenarios for Irish Agriculture: Implications for Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions. Teagasc, Athenry. June 2018.

Eaton, J. M., McGoff, N. M., Byrne, K. A., Leahy, P., & Kiely, G. 2008. Land cover change and soil organic carbon stocks in the Republic of Ireland 1851–2000. Climatic change, 91(34), 317334.


Easterling, DR. et al. 2000. Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289, 2068–2074.


Holden, J. et al. 2019. The role of hedgerows in soil functioning within agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 273, 112.

Morriën, E. et al. 2017. Soil networks become more connected and take up more carbon as nature restoration progresses. Nature Communications, 8, 14349.

Noone, S. et al. 2017. A 250‐year drought catalogue for the island of Ireland (1765–2015). International Journal of Climatology, 37, 239254.

Schimel, JP. 2018. Life in dry soils: effects of drought on soil microbial communities and processes. Annual Review in Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 49, 409432.

Spaans, F. et al. 2019. Trees in trimmed hedgerows but not tree health increase diversity of oribatid mite communities in intensively managed agricultural land. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 138, 107568.




Beaumont, DJ. & England, BJ. 2015. The Corncrake Crex crex population in Scotland from 1993 to 2015 with an overview of conservation measures taken during this period. Vogelwelt 136: 153 – 161.


Byrne et al 2018. Results-based Agrienvironment Payments General Guidance Handbook. Stepbystep to designing resultsbased schemes: lessons from Ireland and Spain


Colhoun, K. & Cummins, S. 2013. Birds of Conservation Concern in Ireland 20142019. Irish Birds 9: 523544. 


Copland. 2018. The Common Agricultural Policy Post 2020 


Crowe, O. 2019. Developing birds as indicators in Ireland


O’Donoghue, B.G. 2018. Curlew Conservation Programme Annual Report 2018. National Parks & Wildlife Service, Killarney.


Gibbons, DW., Reid, JB. & Chapman, RA. 1993. The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 19881991. T. & A. D. Poyser, London.


Kelly, S. & Donaghy, A. 2015. “Breeding Curlew Survey 2015: Results from Donegal, West Galway, Kildare, Laois, Clare, North Tipperary, Kerry and West Limerick” Report to National Parks and Wildlife Service. BirdWatch Ireland.

Laidlaw et al. 2015. Reducing the impacts of predation on breeding waders using landscape-scale habitat management


Last Chance CAP. 2019.


McDevitt, AM. & Casey, C. 1999. The Corncrake (Crex crex) in Ireland, p. 5968.  64 in Scaffer , N. & Mammen, U. (eds.) (1999): Proceedings International Corncrake Workshop 1998, Hilpoltstein/Germany.


McDonald et al. 2008. Predation of Lapwing Vanellus vanellus nests on lowland wet

grassland in England and Wales: effects of nest density,habitat and predator abundance


NPWS. Article 12 Report.

Sheldon et al. 2004. Conservation management of Lapwing Vanellus vanellus on lowland arable farmland in the UK


Drew, D. and Magee, E. 1994. Environmental Implications of Land Reclamation in the Burren, Co. Clare: a preliminary analysis. Irish Geography, Vol. 27 No. 2, 8196.

Drew, D. 1996. Agriculturally induced environmental changes in the Burren Karst, Western Ireland. Environmental Geology, Vol. 28, No. 3, 137144.

Dunford, B. 2001. The Impact of Agricultural Practices on the Natural Heritage of the Burren Uplands, Co. Clare. PhD Thesis submitted to the National University of
Ireland, Dublin, November 2001.

Parr, S., O’Donovan, G., Finn, J. 2006. Mapping the broad habitats of the Burren using satellite imagery, End of Project Report, Teagasc, 2006.


DHPLG. 2018. Public Accounts Committee - Updating Briefing Paper.


EPA. 2017. Annual Report and Accounts 2017.

Killeen, I. & Moorkens, E. 2016. The translocation of freshwater pearl mussels: a review of reasons, methods and success and a new protocol for England. Natural England Commissioned Reports, Number 229.

Moorkens, E. 1999. Conservation Management of the Freshwater Pearl Mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Part 1: Biology of the species and its present situation in Ireland. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 8.

Moorkens, E.A. 2017. Short-term breeding: releasing post-parasitic juvenile Margaritifera into ideal small-scale receptor sites: a new technique for the augmentation of declining populations. Hydrobiologia.

NPWS. 2019. Article 17 Report.



Davidson, N. C. 2014. How much wetland has the world lost? Longterm and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research 65: 934–941 (2014). 


Davis, S. J., Ó hUallacháin, D., Mellander, PE., Kelly, AM., Matthaei, CD., Piggott, JJ., & Kelly-Quinn, M. 2018. Multiple-stressor effects of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen on stream macroinvertebrate communities. Science of the Total Environment, 637638, 577587.


Fanning, A., Craig, M., Webster, P., Bradley, C., Tierney, D., Wilkes, R., Mannix, A., Treacy, P., Kelly, F., Geoghegan, R., Kent, T., and M. Mageean, M. 2017. Water Quality in Ireland 2010–2015. EPA, Wexford.


Flitcroft, R., Boon, PJ., Cooperman, MS., Harrison, IJ., & Bignoli, DJ. 2019. Theory and practice to conserve freshwater biodiversity in the Anthropocene, Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 1013–1021.


Kleijn, D. and Sutherland, WJ. 2019. How effective are European agrienvironment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology 2003, 40, 947–969.


Naiman, RJ., Decamps, H., Pollock, M. 1993. The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecological Applications 3: 209–212.


Reid, AJ., Carlson, AK., Creed, IF., Eliason, EJ., Gell, PA., Johnson, PT., ... Cooke, SJ. 2019. Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity. Biological Reviews 94, 840873.


SánchezBayo, F., & Wyckhuys, KAG. 2019. Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers. Biological Conservation 232, 8–27.

Trodd, W. and O’Boyle, S. 2018. Water Quality in 2017: An Indicators Report. Environmental Protection Agency. Ireland.

WWF. 2018. Living Planet Report.


Benton, T.G. et al. 2003. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, 182–188.

Berry PM et al. 2002. Modeling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic en velope of species in Britain and Ireland. Global Ecol Biogeogr 11: 453–462.


Colhoun, K. & Cummins, S. 2013. Birds of Conservation Concern in Ireland 2014–2019. Irish Birds 9: 523544.


Donald, PF. et al 2001. Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe’s farmland bird populations. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 268.


Dover, JW. (Ed) 2019. The Ecology of Hedgerows and Field Margins, 25–29. Routledge, London.


Fuller, RJ. 2000. Relationships between recent changes in lowland British agriculture and farmland bird populations: an overview. In Aebischer, N.J., Evans, A.D., Grice, P.V. & Vickery, J.A. (eds) Ecology and Conservation of Lowland Farmland Birds: 5–16. Tring: British Ornithologists’ Union.


Johnston, A. et al. 2013. Observed and predicted effects of climate change on species abundance in protected areas. Nature Climate Change, 3, 1055–1061.


Marzluff, JM. and Sallabanks, R. (Eds) 1998. Avian Conservation: research and management. Island Press, Washington.


Nairn, R. & O’Halloran, J. (Eds) 2012. Bird Habitats in Ireland. The Collins Press.


Robinson, RA. and Sutherland, WJ. 2002. Postwar changes in arable farming and biodiversity in Great Britain. J. Appl. Ecol. 39, 157 – 176.


Vickery, JA. et al. 2001. The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. J. Appl. Ecol. 38, 647 – 664.


Vickery, JE. et al. 2009. Arable field margins managed for biodiversity conservation: a review of food resource provision for farmland birds. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 133, 1–13.


Westbury, DB. et al. 2017. Buffer strip management to deliver plant and invertebrate resources for farmland birds in agricultural landscapes. Agr Ecosyst Environ. 240:215–223. doi: 10.1016/j.agee. 2017.02.031.

Wilson, JD. et al. 1999. A review of the abundance and diversity of invertebrate and plant foods of granivorous birds in northern Europe in relation to agricultural change. Agricul. Ecosyst. Env. 75: 13–30.



Alison et al. 2013. Successful restoration of moth abundance and speciesrichness in grassland

created under agri-environment schemes. Biol. Cons., All Ireland Pollinator Plan Farmland Guidelines.


Biesmeijer et al. 2006. Parallel Declines in Pollinators and Insect-Pollinated Plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science. 

Bommarco et al. 2013. Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security. TREE.


Byrne et al. 2019. The effect of management practices on bumblebee densities in hedgerow and grassland habitats. Basic & Applied Ecology.


Carvalheiro et al. 2013. Species richness declines and biotic homogenisation have slowed down for NW‐European pollinators and plants. Ecology Letters.


Cole et al. 2017. Exploring the interactions between resource availability and the utilisation of seminatural habitats by insect pollinators in an intensive agricultural landscape. Ag, Eco & Env.


Cole et al. 2002. Relationships between agricultural management and ecological groups of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Scottish farmland. Ag, Eco & Env.


Desneux et al. 2007. Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Beneficial Arthropods Ann Rev Ent


Fitzpatrick et al. 2007. Rarity and decline in bumblebees – A test of causes and correlates in the Irish fauna. Biological Conservation.


Froidevaux et al. 2019. Moth responses to sympathetic hedgerow management in temperate farmland. Ag, Eco & Env.


Furst et al. 2014. Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature.


Goulson et al. 2015. Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and

lack of flowers. Science.


Grixti et al. 2009. Grixti, J.C., Wong, L.T., Cameron, S.A., Favret, C., 2009. Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the American Midwest. Biol. Conserv. 142, 75–84.


Habel et al. 2019. Mitigating the precipitous decline of terrestrial European

insects: Requirements for a new strategy. Biodiversity and Conservation. 


Hallman et al. 2017. More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas.


O’Hea et al. 2010. Lethal and sublethal effects of ivermectin on north temperate dung beetles, Aphodius ater and Aphodius rufipes (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Ins. Cons. Div.


IPBES. 2016. The assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on pollinators, pollination and food production. S.G. Potts, V. L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, and H. T. Ngo (eds). 

Kremen & Merlender. 2018. Landscapes that work for biodiversity and people. Science.


Leather et al. 2018. “Ecological Armageddon” – more evidence for the drastic decline in insect numbers. Ann Appl Biol.


Losey, JE. & Vaughan, M. 2006. The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided by Insects. Bioscience. 


Merckx et al. 2012. Hedgerow trees and extended‐width field margins enhance macro‐moth diversity: implications for management. J App Ecol. 


NBDC. No date. Ireland’s Red Lists.

NBDC. 2019. Press Release: Citizen science key to tracking insect declines in Ireland.

NPWS. 2019. Article 17 Report 2019

Ollerton et al. 2014. Extinctions of aculeate pollinators in Britain and the role of largescale agricultural changes. Science. 

Persson et al. 2013. Seasonal persistence of bumblebee populations is affected by landscape context. Ag, Eco & Env. 


Pisa et al. 2017. An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides. Part 2: impacts on organisms and ecosystems. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.


Potts et al. 2010. Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. ScienceDirect.

Power. 2016. Organic farming and landscape factors affect abundance and richness of hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) in grasslands. Ins Cons Div.


Power & Stout. 2011. Organic dairy farming: impacts on insect–flower interaction networks and pollination. J App Ecol.


SanchezBayo et al. 2019. Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers. Biological Conservation. Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany. 552 pages. 

Shorthall et al. 2009. Long‐term changes in the abundance of flying insects


Staley et al. 2016. Little and late: How reduced hedgerow cutting can benefit Lepidoptera. Ag, Eco & Env.


Stanley et al. 2013. Quantifying the impacts of bioenergy crops on pollinating insect abundance and diversity: a fieldscale evaluation reveals taxonspecific responses. J App Ecol.


Stout, JC., Murphy, JT., Kavanagh, S. 2019. Assessing Market and Non-market Values of Pollination Services in Ireland (Pollival).

Tscharntke et al. 2005. Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters.

UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. No date.


Hersperger, A. M., Oliveira, E., Pagliarin, S., Palka, G., Verburg, P., Bolliger, J., & Grădinaru, S. 2018. Urban land-use change: The role of strategic spatial planning. Global Environmental Change, 51, 32-42. doi.

Hochstrasser, T. and Herzig, A. 2018. Research needs for climate change mitigation through land use change. How can activity change for carbon neutrality be contextualized within activities of other sectors? Final Report Project no: 2014-CCRP-DS.9. Environmental Protection Agency. Wexford.

UN. 2019. Global Sustainable Development Report 2019: The Future is Now – Science for Achieving Sustainable Development.

van Delden, H., & Vanhout, R. 2014. Volume 5: Land use Trends and Scenarios', in: ET2050 — Territorial scenarios and visions for Europe. EPSON.

Wading Bird Ecolgy
Limestone Pavement
Upland Ecology
Freshwater Ecology
Farmland Bird Ecology
Pollinator Ecology
Rural/Urban Development
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